similarities and differences of philosophers about self

The people remaining in the cave represent the ignorant, uneducated majority of society and these people, when the philosophically enlightened person returns, are unwilling to believe him and would rather cast him away than accept his truth. In Plato's view, a person already knows what is good because that person will respond innately to the quality of goodness in the writing and will also respond to the concept of goodness in one's life. Plato is often criticised for being too elitist in his views, as he requires a great amount of time devoted to asceticism in order to learn. The end result is his philosophy of idealism, wherein the truest essence of things occurs in thought, not reality. Mark, E. (2016, January 17). For Socrates and Plato, wisdom is the basic virtue and with it, one can unify all virtues into a whole. His father was Ariston, descended from kings in Athens and Messenia, and his mother, Perictione, was related to the great Greek statesman, Solon. Indeed, the character Socrates there develops a theory of political justice as a means of advancing the ethical discussion, drawing an analogy between the three parts of the soulReason, Spirit, and Appetiteand the three classes of an ideal state (i.e., city-state)Rulers, Soldiers, and Producers (e.g., artisans and farmers). One person in the cave is set free and forced to climb a steep hill representing the struggle and effort it takes to gain knowledge and learn as a philosopher would. Forms. His most important works, copied hundreds of times by hand throughout ancient and medieval times, were titled: Physics; De Anima (On the Soul); Metaphysics; Politics; and Poetics. The tone and viewpoint is that of an elite taking care of the less capable, but unlike the Spartan oligarchy that Plato fought against, the Republic would follow a more philosophical and less martial path. After leaving Athens, Aristotle spent time traveling and studying in Asia Minor (what is now Turkey) and its islands. 12 philosophers namely; Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, Rene des Cartes, Locke, Hume, Kant, Freud, Ryle, Churchland, and Merleau-Ponty, They differently have beliefs that self is different from the body and soul; soul is synonymous with the self; that the Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree. Today,. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. For Plato, Forms are abstract objects, existing completely outside space and time. Aristotle proposed that "nature does nothing in vain," as everything has a purpose given to it, perhaps by a God. Similarly, human action is explained in the view of hobbes that specific desires and appetites arise from the discomfort or pain that needs to be overcome. If learning were to require asceticism, then it would suggest that humans are not meant to or did not have the capacity to know or learn these things. substances, causally interact. Plato also thinks it essential to disengage from this world to discover an object's form, whereas Aristotle believes we need only study the objects and discover their function (teleology). What remains of Aristotle's works are primarily lecture notes and teaching aids, draft-level material that lacks the polish of "finished" publications. In his Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle held that happiness is the practice of philosophical contemplation in a person who has cultivated all of the intellectual and moral virtues over much of a lifetime. He presents lengthy discussions on justice, wisdom, courage, as well as the duality of power and responsibility. However, their theories led to two of the greatest philosophical views, transcendentalism and naturalism, which have enabled future philosophers to build upon their original views and revise them to accommodate new information and discoveries. An example given by academic scholars is how Confucius' analects deal with both the inner and outer life of a person (holistic) while Aristotle's works emphasize how one should conduct one's self to live well among others (fragmentary). So how exactly does Platos philosophy differ from Aristotles? I was myself involved in many of the family rituals . It involves solving a problem by breaking it into a series of questions. In observing natural occurrences, Aristotle was able to discover a lot about how it develops in nature, and for what reasons it acts as it does. a good mind, but used it well too. pursuits. Our experiences are things that we dont always remember. A substantial form is a kind that is attributed to a thing, without which that thing would be of a different kind or would cease to exist altogether. Similarities between Beliefs and Philosophies from the World. The answers are The most fundamental difference between Plato and Aristotle concerns their theories of forms. According to Aristotle, states may be classified according to the number of their rulers and the interests in which they govern. Please note that some of these recommendations are listed under our old name, Ancient History Encyclopedia. In-text citation: The works of both these men deal with what is 'good' and what is the right way to understand one's existence. For Immanuel Kant, the people are the ones to create their own self. The, three parts are in a continuous process of, balancing each needs and drives. - What would be an example for that? He also empahasized on the saying :I think therefore I am which means that a rational thinking person and being self concious is the proof that there is a self. experiences. As a child being innocent, I learned life experiences which helped me understand how life works and how our self is really discovered. This led the philosophers to overwhelming differences in thought. The two philosophers believed strongly in the concept of eudaimonia, which is basic human well-being and goodness (Mastin, 2008). He is also an empiricist Much of Socrates' ethics was built around this concept, which led to his ethical code becoming basically objective. Plato introduced a three-part soul namely: reason (responsible for cognition), physical, physiological responses), spirit or passion, (basic emotions like love, and anger). It means that the self is a product of the past experiences that he had, and he builds up his identity through all those experiences in the past in which a person made decisions and such. The most fundamental difference between Plato and Aristotle concerns their theories of forms. He emphasized on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to Your self is your basic personality or nature, especially considered in terms of what you are foundation of every human development. For plato, there are three elements of the soul: Reason, Physical Appetite, Spirit or Passion. Wang's and Plato's philosophies have been attacked by empiricists for a lack of evidence, but what these two philosophers are contending makes sense on a very basic level: one must know what is good in order to pursue what is good, and this knowledge of the good must be innate in order for people to have the desire to pursue it in the first place. Both philosophers acknowledged that the self was integral to the origin on the knowledge. - Would you explain why it is necessary or beneficial, and who benefits? Please support World History Encyclopedia. Similarities Between Eastern & Western Philosophy. His early period featured much of what is known about Socrates, with Plato taking the role of the dutiful student who keeps his tutor's ideas alive. 12 philosophers namely; Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, Rene des Cartes, Locke, Hume, Kant, Freud, Ryle, Churchland, and Merleau-Ponty, They differently have beliefs that self is different from the body and soul; soul is synonymous with the self; that the body and soul are one thing; that knowing God is the way of knowing self; self-consciousness is the proof of self; that there is no self; and a lot more. Read More. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2023) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas. Socrates believed in the immortality of the soul, and claimed that God had sent him as a - How does.. with what we learned before? - What does..? We slowly get to know who we are but, we arent aware of it, being unconscious that we are getting better by each day. changed his mind. In succession, Socrates taught Plato, and Plato taught Aristotle. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. He was one of the founders of Western Philosophy. - Similar toMAURICE MERLEAUPONTY, Sigmund Freud uses Consciousness as a dynamic that is a primary contributor to the existence of the SELF. Socrates believed that happiness could be achieved without virtue, but that this happiness was base and animalistic. NAME OF PHILOSOPHERS SIMILARITIES DIFFERENCES 1. He died there in 322 B.C. Philosophy can be defined as the branch of knowledge that deals with the nature of life. We care about our planet! We make ourselves depending on how and what we want it to be. - MEDICINE Aristotle also investigated areas of philosophy and fields of science that Plato did not seriously consider. This was because, even though Socrates' belief was . If true, does this imply purpose also changes and is not fixed. [citation needed] The self is sometimes understood as a unified being essentially connected to consciousness, awareness, and agency. change you and reform the society. who claimed that all that can be known emanates from what we have seen, and not There is no 'eastern' or 'western' philosophy; there is only philosophy. This also enables one to have knowledge of an object whilst it undergoes change, as its change is contained within its purpose. - MECHANICS continually questioning, obtaining answers, and criticizing the answers. That of which the chair is made could have been given a different form if it had been arranged differently. John Locke in relation with Rene des Cartes idea makes our mind develop from being tabula rasa. It is our reason, physical, appetite and spirit or passion that is the elements of our, selves which are in a dynamic relationship with one, Socrates has dealt on the achievement of ones self to. This presented problems to be overcome by each philosopher: Plato had to give an account of where knowledge could be found while Aristotle had to account for how to have knowledge of that which is undergoing change. Plato fought as a soldier between 409 and 404 B.C. The means by which happiness was acquired was through virtue. feelings. Descartes believes that the mind and body are separate of one another causing the problem to form in the transmission of information between the mindand the body. The views of Thomas of Aquinas and Saint Augustine contain many similar points. Brian Duignan is a senior editor at Encyclopdia Britannica. (LogOut/ There is no difference in their fundamental ideas. If you read this far, you should follow us: "Aristotle vs Plato." So, a chair is a chair because it has been designed to have the function of a chair. Aristotle and his works became the basis for the both religion and science, especially through the Middle Ages. Plato felt that the individual should subsume his or her interests to that of society in order to achieve a perfect from of government. Some of his other works are referenced or alluded to by contemporary scholars, but the original material is gone. SOCRATIC METHOD Characteristically, for Aristotle, happiness is not merely a condition of the soul but a kind of right activity. Both fail to account for the possibility of chance happenings, and each philosopher believes there is an ultimate truth and explanation to everything. Considered to be a brilliant student, in 367 B.C. Experiences may or may not be a good one. (Round your answers to 3 decimal places.) Plato came from an affluent and politically inclined clan in Athens. It is St. Augustine who believes that Knowing God is a way of knowing oneself. person is a being characterized by consciousness, rationality, and a moral sense, and traditionally thought of as consisting of both a body and a mind or soul. Essentially their views beyond that are quite different but as aristotle was a student of plato he did use similar terms to describe his thoughts. - Why do you say that? intellectual process was his Socratic method which he used in various occasions to morals (the science of the embodied mind.). examine the concepts like justice and goodness. Aristotle is also known for having devised a classification of forms of government and for introducing an unusual definition of democracy that was never widely accepted. never asked people to be wise, instead he asked them to follow the path of a lover of He created an early version of the scientific method to observe the universe and draw conclusions based on his observations. Moreover, because they are changeless, the Forms possess a higher degree of reality than do things in the world, which are changeable and always coming into or going out of existence. Answer (1 of 4): "What is inside is what is outside". As was typical of upper middle-class families of the time, Plato was educated by tutors, exploring a wide range of topics centered largely on philosophy, what would now be called ethics. Plato believed that concepts had a universal form, an ideal form, which leads to his idealistic philosophy. The relativist philosophies of the Chinese sophist Teng Shih (l. 6th century BCE) and the Greek sophist Protagoras (5th century BCE) are almost identical. In the just state as in the just individual, the three parts perform the functions proper to them and in harmony with the other parts. It spawned what was called the "Peripatetic School," for their habit of walking around as part of their lectures and discussions. Plato was a transcendentalist, meaning he believed that to understand truth one must transcend beyond this world to a higher reality where true concepts exist. They are introduced into a thing when it is made, or they may be acquired later, as in the case of some accidental forms. The good human life, he held, must consist primarily of whatever activity is characteristically human, and that is reasoning. - What are you implying? According to Descartes, the Self emerges as the human person who, not only possessed PHILOSOPHERS SIMILARITIES DIFFERENCES Socrates These three philosophers believed that there is a dualistic nature of man which isthe body and soul. Each one of us is therefore motivated to act in such a way as to relieve our discomfort in preserving and promoting our own well - being.

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